• Associate Analytics

    UNIT - I

    Manage your work to meet requirements (NOS 9001)

    Understanding Learning Objectives


    A person’s reaction pattern depends on the overall individual behavior and psychographic profile. The thinking and acting patterns are governed by cognitive construct such as perception, learning, attitudes, motivation and personality.

    Understanding individual behavior is key to organizational behavior. Psychology and social psychology have made significant contribution towards understanding of individual behavior. These factors are referred as Dynamic of individual behavior.

    Dynamic of individual behavior

    The key dynamics that affect the individual behavior are:

      1. Perception: it is important in understanding one’s behavior and has direct application in organizational behavior and management.

      2. Learning: learning is a dominant psychological process that determines one’s behavior.

      3. Attitudes and values: Attitude is cognitive aspect that always remains inside the person. We cannot see attitude but can see behavior that is triggered by it. Individual behavior is the outcome of learning experience. Learning experience or preferences are called as attitudes. Values are very closely related to attitudes. They are the basic conviction that society holds about all activities of life.

      4. Personality: personality is one of the prime factors determining individual response to any stimulus. One’s pattern of working depends one’s personality.

      5. Motivation: motivation is related to or based on motive. It is a process that stimulates people to put effort in specific direction for accomplishment of goals.

      6. Positive organization behavior (POB): behavior is all about what people think. POB is the outcome of positive response of all participants in the organization.

    Understanding learning objectives

    Definition: learning means acquisition of knowledge, skills, ability, expertise etc through study, experience and practice that result into long term change in one’s behavior.

    It is a process of acquiring knowledge through conscious and systematic efforts that affect one’s subsequent behavior of a long time.

    Objectives or salient features of learning:

      1. Psychological process: learning is an important psychological process that determines individual behavior.

      2. Outcome of past experience: it is the result of past experience or practice.

      3. Change in behavior: learning brings changes in the existing pattern of behavior. It leads to improvement or deterioration in behavior.

      4. Conscious and deliberate: it is a conscious and deliberate process.

      5. Need of reinforcement: it needs reinforcement i.e, any aspect that can strengthen learned things.

      6. Permanent change: behavioral change resulting from learning is relatively permanent.

      7. xperience plus practice: behavioral change must be based on experience plus practice.

      8. Input in other cognitive processes: learning is an input to perception, persona;lity, motivation and attitudes.

    Time management

    Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.

    It is an activity with the goal to maximize the overall benefit of a set of other activities within the boundary condition of a limited amount of time.

    Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects, and goals complying with a due date. Initially, time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well. A time management system is a designed combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Time management is usually a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope.

    Time management has been considered to be a subset of different concepts such as:

    • Project management: Time Management can be considered to be a project management subset and is more commonly known as project planning and project scheduling. Time Management has also been identified as one of the core functions identified in project management.

    • Attention management: Attention Management relates to the management of cognitive resources, and in particular the time that humans allocate their mind (and organize the minds of their employees) to conduct some activities.

    The major themes arising on time management include the following:

    • Creating an environment conducive to effectiveness

    • Setting of priorities

    • Carrying out activity around those priorities

    • The related process of reduction of time spent on non-priorities

    • Incentives to modify behavior to ensure compliance with time-related deadlines.

    Work management and prioritization:

    Work management supports the commands and internal functions necessary to control system operation and the daily workload on the system. In addition, work management contains the functions that you need to distribute resources for your applications so that your system can handle your applications.

    The purpose of your system is to perform work. Work management describes where work enters the system, where and with what resources work is processed, and where output from work goes.

    Work Management functions

    Work Management functions allow you to take any of the following courses of action on work lists

      • View a summary of all work lists for your Organization.

      • View a summary of all work lists proper to your user role and Organization Unit

      • View a summary of all Immediate Action Work lists proper to your user role and Organization Unit.

      • Select the work list that you want to view, or if you have update access to that list, on which you want to action the individual entries.

      • View detailed statistics for the selected work list

      • Select a revised presentation for the work list, that is in a different order, or filtered so that only those cases which have specific conditions present are shown

      • Select a work list entry (work item) to view all available details on that work item

    Six steps for expectation setting with the stakeholders

    1. Describe the jobs in terms of major outcomes and link to the organization’s need: The first step in expectation setting is to describe the job to the employees. They need to feel that there is a greater value to what they do. We need to specify that individual performance has an impact on the organization’s mission.

    2. Share expectations in terms of work style: it is not only important to talk about “what we do” but also on “how we expect to do it”. The ground rules to be followed at the organization are

    • Always let the team know where the problems are

    • Share concerns openly and look for solutions.

    3. Maximize performance: identify what is required to complete the work. Set input as well as output expectations.

    4. Establish priorities: use the time quadrant to establish priorities and also establish crisis plans.

    5. Revalidate understanding: create documentation and communication plan to establish all discussions.

    6. Establish progress check: schedule an early progress check to get things started the right way.


    The important thing is to make the Quality Objectives effective in addressing what needs to be improved. The objectives should be designed to be S.M.A.R.T (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-based) and should have relevance at all levels of the company, meaning that each employee should understand how their job supports meeting the Quality Objectives.

    To do this, the following should be addressed:

    Specific: An objective needs to be clear and specific. Instead of saying “to improve non-conforming product,” a specific Quality Objective would be “to reduce non-conformances on the third widget line,” if the third widget production line is showing data as the most troublesome area for non-conforming product.

    Measurable: If an objective can’t be measured, how will you know if it has been obtained? In order to make a Quality Objective effective, it needs to be measurable, so this means that having an objective “to reduce non-conformances on the third widget line from 15% to 5%” is much more effective than saying “to improve quality of the products on the third widget line.” You can measure the defects being made, and therefore make plans to reduce the number of defects, but a vague measure of “quality” is more ephemeral and very hard to plan improvements for.

    Agreed: For an objective to be agreed it first needs to be created and approved by top level management. Once management agrees on the objective it needs to be communicated to each level of the organization that will be required to implement the plans to achieve the objective, and the people at these levels of the organization need to agree that the plan is achievable. Without this buy-in they may not fully work towards the goal and the plan may be doomed to failure.

    Realistic: Being realistic with an objective will make selling it within your organization easier. If you tell your employees that you want to reduce defects from 50% to 2%, they will not be able to see how this is possible, especially if the plans around the object do not support the improvement. It is better to set realistic goals and overachieve than it is to set unrealistic goals and always fall short of the expectation.

    Time-Based: To be truly effective, an objective needs to have a time associated with it. To say “reduce non-conformances on the third widget line from 15% to 5% in the next year” allows for better planning, since a plan needs to have dates in order to be properly tracked. Again, having the time associated will allow you to monitor how close you expect to be in achieving your goals.

    Manage your work to meet requirements (NOS 9001 standards)

    Description This unit is about planning and organizing your work in order to complete it to the

    required standards on time.

    Scope This unit/task covers the following:

    Work requirements:

     activities (what you are required to do)

     deliverables (the outputs of your work)

     quantity (the volume of work you are expected to complete)

     standards (what is acceptable performance, including compliance with Service Level Agreements)

     timing (when your work needs to be completed)

    Appropriate people:

     line manager

     the person requesting the work

     members of the team/department

     members from other teams/departments


     equipment

     materials

     information

    Performance criteria:

    To be competent on the job, you must be able to:

    PC1. establish and agree your work requirements with appropriate people

    PC2. keep your immediate work area clean and tidy

    PC3. utilize your time effectively

    PC4. use resources correctly and efficiently

    PC5. treat confidential information correctly

    PC6. work in line with your organization’s policies and procedures

    PC7. work within the limits of your job role

    PC8. obtain guidance from appropriate people, where necessary

    PC9. ensure your work meets the agreed requirements

    Knowledge and understanding

    A. Organizational Context

    You need to know and understand:

    KA1. your organization’s policies, procedures and priorities for your

    area of work and your role and responsibilities in carrying out

    your work

    KA2. limits of your responsibilities and when to involve others

    KA3. your specific work requirements and who these must be agreed with

    KA4. the importance of having a tidy work area and how to do this

    KA5. how to prioritize your workload according to urgency and importance and the benefits of this

    KA6. your organization’s policies and procedures for dealing with confidential

    information and the importance of complying with these

    KA7. the purpose of keeping others updated with the progress of your work

    KA8. who to obtain guidance from and the typical circumstances when this may be


    KA9. the purpose and value of being flexible and adapting work plans to reflect


    B. Technical Knowledge

    You need to know and understand:

    KB1. the importance of completing work accurately and how to do this

    KB2. appropriate timescales for completing your work and the

    implications of not meeting these for you and the organization

    KB3. resources needed for your work and how to obtain and use these

    Skills (S)

    A. Core Skills/

    Generic Skills

    Writing Skills

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SA1. complete accurate work with attention to detail

    Reading Skills

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SA2. read instructions, guidelines, procedures, rules and service level agreements

    Oral Communication (Listening and Speaking skills)

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SA3. ask for clarification and advice from line managers

    SA4. communicate orally with colleagues

    B. Professional Skills

    Decision Making

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SB1. make decisions on suitable courses

    Plan and Organize

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SB2. plan and organize your work to achieve targets and deadlines

    SB3. agree objectives and work requirements

    Customer Centricity

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SB4. deliver consistent and reliable service to customers

    SB5. check your own work meets customer requirements

    Problem Solving

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SB6. refer anomalies to the line manager

    SB7. seek clarification on problems from others

    Analytical Thinking

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SB8. provide relevant information to others

    SB9. analyze needs, requirements and dependencies in order to meet your work


    Critical Thinking

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SB10. apply judgments to different situations

    Attention to Detail

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SB11. check your work is complete and free from errors

    SB12. get your work checked by peers

    Team Working

    You need to know and understand how to:

    SB13. work effectively in a team environment

    Technical Skills You need to know and understand how to:

    SC1. use information technology effectively, to input and/or extract data accurately

    SC2. identify and refer anomalies in data

    SC3. store and retrieve information

    SC4. keep up to date with changes, procedures and practices in your


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