• Operating Systems

    UNIT - VI
    Function of File Systems

    * To explain the function of file systems
    * To describe the interfaces to file systems
    * To discuss file-system design tradeoffs, including access methods, file sharing, file locking, and directory structures
    * To explore file-system protection
    File Concept
    Contiguous logical address space Types:
    * Data
    * numeric
    * character
    * binary
    * Program
    File Structure
    * None - sequence of words, bytes
    * Simple record structure
    * Lines
    * Fixed length
    * Variable length
    * Complex Structures Formatted document
    * Relocatable load file
    * Can simulate last two with first method by inserting appropriate control characters
    * Who decides:
    * Operating system
    * Program
    File Attributes
    * Name – only information kept in human-readable form
    * Identifier – unique tag (number) identifies file within file system
    * Type – needed for systems that support different types
    * Location – pointer to file location on device
    * Size – current file size
    * Protection – controls who can do reading, writing, executing
    * Time, date, and user identification – data for protection, security, and usage monitoring
    * Information about files are kept in the directory structure, which is maintained on the disk
    File Operationsn
    File is an abstract data type
    * Create
    * Write
    * Read
    * Reposition within file
    * Delete
    * Truncate
    * Open(Fi) – search the directory structure on disk for entry Fi, and move the content of entry to memory
    * Close (Fi) – move the content of entry Fi in memory to directory structure on disk
    Open Files
    Several pieces of data are needed to manage open files:
    * File pointer: pointer to last read/write location, per process that has the file open
    * File-open count: counter of number of times a file is open – to allow removal of data from open-file table when last processes closes it
    * Disk location of the file: cache of data access information
    * Access rights: per-process access mode information
    Open File Locking
    * Provided by some operating systems and file systems
    * Mediates access to a file
    * Mandatory or advisory:
    * Mandatory – access is denied depending on locks held and requested
    * Advisory – processes can find status of locks and decide what to do
    File Locking Example – Java API
    import java.io.*;
    import java.nio.channels.*;
    public class LockingExample {
    public static final boolean EXCLUSIVE = false;
    public static final boolean SHARED = true;
    public static void main(String arsg[]) throws IOException {
    FileLock sharedLock = null;
    FileLock exclusiveLock = null;
    try {
    RandomAccessFile raf = new RandomAccessFile("file.txt", "rw");
    // get the channel for the file
    FileChannel ch = raf.getChannel();
    // this locks the first half of the file - exclusive
    exclusiveLock = ch.lock(0, raf.length()/2, EXCLUSIVE);
    /** Now modify the data . . . */
    // release the lock
    // this locks the second half of the file - shared
    sharedLock = ch.lock(raf.length()/2+1, raf.length(), SHARED);
    /** Now read the data . . . */
    // release the lock
    } catch (java.io .IO Exception ioe) {
    System .err.println(ioe);
    }finally {
    if (exclusiveLock != null)
    if (sharedLock != null)
    File Types – Name, Extension

    Access Methods
    Sequential Access
    read next
    write next
    no read after last write
    Direct Access
    read n
    write n
    position to n
    read next
    write next
    rewrite n
    n = relative block number
    Sequential-access File

    Simulation of Sequential Access on Direct-access File

    Example of Index and Relative Files

    Directory Structure

    * A collection of nodes containing information about all files

    * Both the directory structure and the files reside on disk
    * Backups of these two structures are kept on tapes
    Disk Structure
    * Disk can be subdivided into partitions
    * Disks or partitions can be RAID protected against failure
    * Disk or partition can be used raw – without a file system, or formatted with a file system
    * Partitions also known as minidisks, slices
    * Entity containing file system known as a volume
    * Each volume containing file system also tracks that file system’s info in device directory or volume table of contents
    * As well as general-purpose file systems there are many special-purpose file systems, frequently all within the same operating system or computer
    A Typical File-system Organization

    Operations Performed on Directory

    * Search for a file
    * Create a file
    * Delete a file
    * List a directory
    * Rename a file
    * Traverse the file system
    Organize the Directory (Logically) to Obtain
    * Efficiency – locating a file quickly
    * Naming – convenient to users
    * Two users can have same name for different files
    * The same file can have several different names
    * Grouping – logical grouping of files by properties, (e.g., all Java programs, all games, …)
    Single-Level Directory
    * A single directory for all users

    * Naming problem
    * Grouping problem
    Two-Level Directory
    * Separate directory for each user

    * Path name
    * Can have the same file name for different user
    * Efficient searching
    * No grouping capability
    Tree-Structured Directories

    * Efficient searching
    * Grouping Capability
    * Current directory (working directory)
    * cd /spell/mail/prog
    * ype list
    * Absolute or relative path name
    * Creating a new file is done in current directory
    * Delete a file
    rm <file-name>
    Creating a new subdirectory is done in current directory
    mkdir <dir-name>
    Example: if in current directory /mail
    mkdir count

    * Deleting “mail” Þ deleting the entire subtree rooted by “mail”
    Acyclic-Graph Directories
    * Have shared subdirectories and files

    * Two different names (aliasing)
    * If dict deletes list Þ dangling pointer
    * Solutions:
    * Backpointers, so we can delete all pointers
    * Variable size records a problem
    * Backpointers using a daisy chain organization
    * Entry-hold-count solution
    * New directory entry type
    * Link – another name (pointer) to an existing file
    * Resolve the link – follow pointer to locate the file
    General Graph Directory

    * How do we guarantee no cycles?
    * Allow only links to file not subdirectories
    * Garbage collection
    * Every time a new link is added use a cycle detection
    * algorithm to determine whether it is OK
    File System Mounting
    * A file system must be mounted before it can be accessed
    * A unmounted file system (i.e. Fig. 11-11(b)) is mounted at a mount point
    (a) Existing. (b) Unmounted Partition

    Mount Point

    File Sharing

    * Sharing of files on multi-user systems is desirable
    * Sharing may be done through a protection scheme
    * On distributed systems, files may be shared across a network
    * Network File System (NFS) is a common distributed file-sharing method
    File Sharing – Multiple Users
    * User IDs identify users, allowing permissions and protections to be per-user
    * Group IDs allow users to be in groups, permitting group access rights
    File Sharing – Remote File Systems
    * Uses networking to allow file system access between systems
    * Manually via programs like FTP
    * Automatically, seamlessly using distributed file systems
    * Semi automatically via the world wide web
    * Client-server model allows clients to mount remote file systems from servers
    * Server can serve multiple clients
    * Client and user-on-client identification is insecure or complicated
    * NFS is standard UNIX client-server file sharing protocol
    * CIFS is standard Windows protocol
    * Standard operating system file calls are translated into remote calls
    * Distributed Information Systems (distributed naming services) such as LDAP, DNS, NIS, Active Directory implement unified access to information needed for remote computing
    File Sharing – Failure Modes
    * Remote file systems add new failure modes, due to network failure, server failure
    * Recovery from failure can involve state information about status of each remote request
    * Stateless protocols such as NFS include all information in each request, allowing easy recovery but less security
    File Sharing – Consistency Semantics
    * Consistency semantics specify how multiple users are to access a shared file simultaneously
    * Similar to Ch 7 process synchronization algorithms
    * Tend to be less complex due to disk I/O and network latency (for remote file systems
    * Andrew File System (AFS) implemented complex remote file sharing semantics
    * Unix file system (UFS) implements:
    * Writes to an open file visible immediately to other users of the same open file
    * Sharing file pointer to allow multiple users to read and write concurrently
    * AFS has session semantics
    * Writes only visible to sessions starting after the file is closed
    * File owner/creator should be able to control:
    * what can be done
    * by whom
    * Types of access
    * Read
    * Write
    * Execute
    * Append
    * Delete
    * List
    Access Lists and Groups
    * Mode of access: read, write, execute
    * Three classes of users
    a) owner access 7 1 1 1
    b) group access 6 Þ 1 1 0
    c) public access 1 Þ 0 0 1
    * Ask manager to create a group (unique name), say G, and add some users to the group.
    * For a particular file (say game) or subdirectory, define an appropriate access.
    * Attach a group to a file
    * chgrp G game
    Windows XP Access-control List Management

    A Sample UNIX Directory Listing

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