Operating Systems

Objective of the Course

  •     Operating systems are an essential part of any computer system. Similarly, a course on operating systems is an essential part of any computer-science education. This field is undergoing rapid change, as computers are now prevalent in virtually every application, from games for children through the most sophisticated planning tools for governments and multinational firms. Yet the fundamental concepts remain fairly clear, and it is on these that the course was designed. It provides a clear description of the concepts that underlie operating systems. As prerequisites, we assume that the reader is familiar with basic data structures, computer organization, and a high-level language, such as C. The hardware topics required for an understanding of operating systems are included.
    Important Units from Exam Point of View
    UNIT I : Computer System and Operating System Overview
    UNIT II : Process Management
    UNIT III : Concurrency
    UNIT V : Principles of deadlock
    UNIT VII : Mass-storage structure
    UNIT I:
    * To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components
    * To provide coverage of basic computer system organization
    * To provide an idea with what operating systems are,
    * The context in which OS operates
    * To describe the services an operating system provides to users, processes, and other systems.
    * To discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system.
    * To explain how operating systems are installed and customized and how they boot.
    * To introduce the notion of a process — a program in execution, which forms the basis of all computation.
    * To describe the various features of processes, including scheduling,creation and termination, and communication.
    * To describe communication in client-server systems.
    * To introduce the critical-section problem, whose solutions can be used to ensure the consistency of shared data.
    * To present both software and hardware solutions of the critical-section problem.
    * To intoduce the concept of atomic transaction and describe mechanisms to ensure atomicity.
    UNIT IV:
    * To provide a detailed description of various ways of organizing memory hardware.
    * To discuss various memory-management techniques, including paging and segmentation.
    * To provide a detailed description of the Intel Pentium, which supports both pure segmentation and segmentation with paging.
    UNIT V:
    * To develop a description of deadlocks, which prevent sets of concurrent processes from completing their tasks
    * To present a necessary and sufficient conditions for a deadlock to occur in a computer system.
    * To present a number of different methods for preventing or avoiding deadlocks in a computer system.
    * To present a number of different methods for detecting deadlocks in a computer system.
    UNIT VI:
    * To describe the benefits of a virtual memory system.
    * To explain the concepts of demand paging, page-replacement algorithms and allocation of page frames.
    * To discuss the principles of the working-set model.
    * To explain the function of file systems.
    * To describe the interfaces to file systems.
    * To discuss file-system design tradeoffs, including access methods, file sharing, file locking, and directory structures.
    * To explore file-system protection.
    * Describe the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices
    * and the resulting effects on the uses of the devices.
    * Explain the performance characteristics of mass-storage devices.
    * Discuss operating-system services provided for mass storage, including
    * RAID and HSM
    * Explore the structure of an operating system's I/O subsystem.
    * Discuss the principles of I/O hardware and its complexity
    * Provide details of the performance aspects of I/O hardware and software
    * Discuss the goals and principles of protection in a modern computer system.
    * Explain how protection domains combined with an access matrix are used to specify the resources a process may access.
    * Examine capability- and language-based protection systems..

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