Principles of Programming Languages

  • Q1. What is principle of programming language?
    Ans. It is a set of rules governed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.

    Q2. What are objectives of principles of programming language?
    Ans. Objectives are-
    • To introduce several different paradigms of programming
    • To gain experience with these paradigms by using example programming languages
    • To understand concepts of syntax, translation, abstraction, and implementation

    Q3. What are the Paradigms of Programming?
    Ans. Several paradigms are-
    • Procedural
    – examples: C, Pascal, Basic, Fortran
    • Functional
    – examples: Lisp, ML
    • Object-oriented
    – examples: C++, Java, Smalltalk
    • Rule-based (or Logic)
    – example: Prolog

    Q4.Why there is need of so many paradigms?
    Ans. The choice of paradigm and therefore language depends on how human’s best think about the problem
    Other considerations are-
    • Efficiency
    • Compatibility with existing code
    • Availability of translators

    Q5. List the models of computation of language.
    Ans. Models are-
    • RAM machine
    – Procedural
    • Directed acyclic graphs
    – Smalltalk model of O-O
    • Partial recursive functions
    – Lisp and ML
    • Markov algorithms
    – Prolog is loosely based on these

    Q6. List various type of languages.
    Ans. Various types of languages are-
    • Document languages, e.g. LaTeX, Postscript
    • Command languages, e.g. bash, MATLAB
    • Markup languages, e.g. HTML and XML
    • Specification languages, e.g. UML

    Q7. What are the issues for languages?
    Ans. Issues are-
    • Can it be understood by people and processed by machines?
    – Although translation may be required.
    • Sufficient expressive power?
    – Can we say what needs to be said, at an appropriate level of abstraction?

    Q8. What is translation?
    Ans. Translation is communication of converting the source code into target code.

    Q9. What are different types of translation and their roles?
    Ans. Types of translation are-
    • Compilation
    – Translate instructions into suitable (lower level) machine code
    – During execution, machine maintains program state information
    • Interpretation
    – May involve some translation
    – Interpreter maintains program state

    Q10. What is trade’s off of translation.
    Ans. Trade’s off of translation are-
    • Compilation
    – lower level machine may be faster, so programs run faster
    – compilation can be expensive
    – examples: C
    • Interpretation
    – more ability to perform diagnostics (or changes) at run-time
    – examples: Basic, UNIX shells, Lisp

    11.What is Von Neumann Architecture?
    12.What are the basic categories of programming language?
    13.What is a complier? Explain the compilation process.
    14.What are “lexemes” and “tokens”?
    15.What is context-free grammar and regular grammar?
    16.What is a derivation in Backus-Naur form (BNF)?
    17.What is a parse tree?
    18.What are the three extensions that are made to BNF that resulted to EBNF?
    19.What is Static semantic, Operational semantic Axiomatic semantic?
    20.What is a State diagram?
    21.What is parsing? What are the symbols used for denoting Terminals, Non-Terminals, String of terminals and Mixed Strings.
    22. What is LR Parser?
    23.What is Type Checking, What is Strongly Typed?
    24. What are Rectangular and Jagged Arrays?
    25.Which is the first functional programming language?
    26.What is Logic programming? What are the Applications of Logic Programming?
    27.What is first-order predicate calculus?
    28.What is a Meta Language?
    29.What are Meta Symbols?
    30.What is sentential form?
    31.What is Ambiguous grammar?
    32.What are synthesized attributes in parse tree?
    33.What are inherited attributes in parse tree?
    34.What is natural operational semantic?
    35.What is structural operational semantics?

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